This chapter extends the material presented in Chapters 24 to 27 by covering a variety of topics related to process creation and program execution. We describe process accounting, a kernel feature that writes an accounting record about each process on the system as it terminates. We then look at the Linux-specific clone() system call, which is the low-level API that is used to create threads on Linux. We follow this with some comparisons of the performance of fork(), vfork(), and clone(). We conclude with a summary of the effects of fork() and exec() on the attributes of a process.
28 Process Creation and Program Execution in More Detail
28.1 Process Accounting
28.2 The clone() System Call
28.2.1 The clone() flags Argument
28.2.2 Extensions to waitpid() for Cloned Children
28.3 Speed of Process Creation
28.4 Effect of exec() and fork() on Process Attributes